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© NASA and © Spaceweather.com
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Updated:    18 January 2019



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International Space Station news and views  

Click   here  to see the current position of the International Space Station (ISS) and the view from the spacecraft. The lower part of the webpage shows the ground track across the globe.  Click on  SNAPSHOT  when you are in an area of interest. You can navigate using the arrows in the upper-left corner. Also, you can zoom in using the vertical bar with the + and - signs.      (Contributed by Tim)

See the International Space Station passing overhead tonight  (from the Sunshine Coast, Queensland):  

Saturday, 23 December, 2017:     The ISS will appear 36º above the west-north-western horizon at 7:01 pm and will reach a maximum elevation of 67º.  It will disappear into the Earth's shadow when 10º above the south-eastern horizon.  In this flyover, the ISS will be visible for 4 minutes.



Interesting research news (latest news first):

The Australian National University has joined the Giant Magellan Telescope international consortium of research organisations. The GMT is likely to be one of the first of a small number of next-generation Extremely Large Telescopes that are expected to be built in the next 20 years. The telescope's conceptual design anticipates a moving mass of 1000 tonnes and a cylindrical observatory 65 metres high. It will be built by the participating organisations at a site in northern Chile. The primary mirror will have seven circular segments each 8.4 metres across, six of these surrounding the centrally located seventh. The total light-gathering power will be nearly seven times that of the Gemini telescopes, which are the largest ones to which Australian astronomers currently have access, and the images obtained should be ten times clearer than those taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. The GMT is expected to see first light in 2022.  GMT Home page     Australia's involvement


NASA's powerful infrared Spitzer Space Telescope has taken an image that rivals the Hubble Space Telescope's 'Pillars of Creation' photograph taken ten years ago of part of the Eagle Nebula. Dubbed the 'Mountains of Creation', it shows huge clouds of matter undergoing intense star formation in the region W5 in Cassiopeia. These clouds, which are ten times bigger than the Pillars, are illuminated in the infrared band, but appear as dark clouds in visible light images.  Full story


The Hubble Space Telescope has found a disc of blue stars orbiting around a supermassive black hole at the centre of the Andromeda Galaxy, M31. The disc is only one light year across, and contains 400 hot young stars orbiting the black hole at speeds up to 1000 kilometres per second. As the cores of galaxies typically contain old red Population I stars, this is quite an enigma.  Full story


The MAGIC Telescope is the largest and most advanced single instrument yet built to observe very-high-energy cosmic rays from the ground. Its parabolic mirror is made up of about a thousand 50 cm X 50 cm aluminium mirror panels, giving a total area equivalent to a single 15 metre diameter mirror. MAGIC is an acronym for 'Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov'.   Full story


The White House has forced NASA to cancel the fourth shuttle mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope. It is now expected that the HST will be allowed to burn up during re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere sometime during this decade. The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter had also been a victim of budgetary cuts and is to be postponed indefinitely.  Full story


The Swift Gamma-ray Observatory observed its first gamma-ray burst on January 17, two months after launch.  Full story


Earth's most extensive global topographic map has just been completed by NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. The final section to be done included Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific islands. The resolution of the publicly available data is 90 metres at the Equator.  Full story


ESA's Smart-1 spacecraft reached its final operational orbit around the Moon in late February. The mission has been extended until August 2006.  Full story


Black holes use their intense gravitational fields to draw in nearby matter, which gives out tremendous amounts of radiation as it approaches the event horizon. The process has been found to be anything but smooth, however.  Full story


The European Southern Observatory now has the world's largest interferometer. It is the world's most advanced optical instrument, and consists of four Unit Telescopes with main mirrors of 8.2m diameter and four movable 1.8m diameter Auxiliary Telescopes. The telescopes can work together, to form a giant ‘interferometer’, the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It will allow astronomers to see details up to 25 times clearer than with the individual telescopes.  Full story


The Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered two huge clouds of warm-hot intergalactic matter (WHIM) around our galaxy. This may be some of the missing 'dark matter' of the universe. The clouds have a temperature of about 1 million degrees K, and contain ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and neon.  Full story


Images from space of the December 26, 2004 tsunami are available  here,  here  and  here.


The Rosetta space vehicle launched last March by the European Space Agency (ESA) will have four planetary intercepts before it heads off to Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which it will reach in 2014.  Full story


The newly-discovered planetoid Sedna, 1700 km across, is the reddest object in the Solar System except for Mars. It is the furthest object in the Solar System except for comets, and takes 10 500 years to circle the Sun once. Should we call it a planet or is it too small?  More information about Sedna


The ESA solar spacecraft Ulysses has passed through two, and possibly three comet tails.  Full story


The Chandra X-ray Observatory has made the first clear detection of x-rays from Saturn, and has also revealed new information about the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.   Full story


NASA's Genesis spacecraft completed its collection of solar wind particles last April and is now on its way back to Earth. The samples were placed into a sealed container which will be released into our atmosphere on September 8, hopefully parachuting to Earth over Utah. Helicopter pilots are being trained to snag the return capsule in mid-air.   Full story


The Hubble Space Telescope has provided the deepest portrait of the visible universe ever taken, with a photograph whose exposure was one million seconds long (over 11.5 days!). It shows the faintest and most distant galaxies (in time as well as distance), some of the faintest possibly being the first galaxies to emerge after the 'big bang'. Hubble's Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) is in the southern constellation Fornax. In ground-based images, the region of the HUDF is largely empty, but the Hubble Telescope has revealed 10 000 galaxies there, in an area of sky only one hundredth the area of the Full Moon.  Full story



Latest Astronomical Headlines from the IAU (International Astronomical Union):      Click  here.











    SPACE                                   SPACE WEATHER                          UNIVERSE TODAY                                    NASA     


Dateline - 17 January 2019 -    Earth's shifting magnetic field

Earth's magnetic field is changing so quickly that researchers have been forced to update to the World Magnetic Model ahead of schedule. Developed by NOAA and the British Geological Survey, the model is widely used for precision navigation of devices ranging from nuclear submarines to the common smartphone. Your own phone may be affected. Find out how on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline - 15 January 2019 -    A collision in the Asteroid Belt

Something violent just happened in the asteroid belt. Not far beyond the orbit of Mars, asteroid 6478 Gault appears to have been struck by another asteroid. The resulting stream of debris stretches more than 400 000 kilometres, which is greater than the distance between Earth and the Moon. Astronomers around the world are now monitoring the formerly unremarkable asteroid to see what happens next. Get the full story on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline - 10 January 2019 -    Venus and Jupiter in conjunction

Venus and Jupiter are converging for a beautiful conjunction in Ophiuchus, the unofficial "13th constellation of the zodiac." The two bright planets are easy to see even from light-polluted urban areas and are being photographed by many observers surrounded by the morning-glow of sunrise. At closest approach on January 21-22, they will be only 2.5 degrees apart, and visible even from brightly-lit cities. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for sky maps and observing tips.

Dateline - 2 January 2019 -    Historic first images of Ultima Thule

Scientists from NASA's New Horizons mission have released the first detailed images of Ultima Thule, the most distant object ever explored. Its remarkable appearance, consisting of two primitive spheres stuck together in the middle, is unlike anything we've seen before. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for photos and more information.

Dateline - 31 December 2018 -    Watch the NASA spacecraft New Horizons fly by the Kuiper Belt Object Ultima Thule at 3:33 pm on January 1 and 2

NASA's New Horizons spacecraft is now only hours away from Ultima Thule, a mysterious elongated object in the distant Kuiper Belt. At 3:33 pm AEST (Queensland time) on January 1 (today), New Horizons will swoop past Ultima Thule three times closer than it buzzed Pluto in 2015. Radio signals and data acquisition from the encounter will take about 10 hours to reach Earth, so information and pictures from the flyby will not be received until about 1:30 am on Tuesday, January 2 (our time). More information and links to live coverage are available on today's edition of Spaceweather .

Dateline - 28 December 2018 -    Spotless Sun sparks geomagnetic storm

Solar Minimum is in full swing. No sunspots? No problem. Last night the spotless sun produced a G1-class geomagnetic storm with bright auroras reported from Iceland to Alaska.  More lights are in the offing as a stream of solar wind is expected to buffet Earth's magnetic field for the next 24 to 48 hours. Get the full story from  Spaceweather .


Dateline - 25 December 2018 -    Noctilucent clouds blanket Antarctica

In Antarctica, Christmas lights are electric blue.  Noctilucent clouds glowing with the azure color of an electrical discharge are swirling around the South Pole, blanketing almost the entire frozen continent, according to new images from NASA's AIM spacecraft. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  to learn more about these clouds and how they may connect to winter weather in the USA.


Dateline - 22 December 2018 -    Is Ultima Thule surrounded by mini-Moons ?

Long range images have revealed something strange about Ultima Thule, the distant Kuiper Belt Object that NASA's New Horizons spacecraft is approaching for a New Year's Day flyby. Although it is almost certainly irregular in shape, the brightness of Ultima Thule does not seem to change as it rotates in sunlight. One possible explanation: A swarm of 'mini-moons' surrounding it.  Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story.

Dateline - 18 December 2018 -    The mystery of Ultima Thule

NASA's New Horizons spacecraft is about to make history - again. The distant probe is less than two weeks away from "Ultima Thule," a strangely elongated object in the distant reaches of the solar system. On New Year's Eve, New Horizons will fly past Ultima Thule three times closer than it buzzed Pluto in July 2015, giving scientists their first close-up look at a small Kuiper Belt Object. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story. 


Dateline - 12 December 2018 -   Comet  46/P Wirtanen at perihelion today

The image below shows Comet 46/P Wirtanen near perihelion on December 12, 2018, at 00:55 am. It was faintly visible to the unaided eye, but easily visible through binoculars. Today it will move from the constellation Cetus into Taurus.

Comet 46/P Wirtanen was faintly visible to the unaided eye, but easily visible through binoculars.  The circled star has a magnitude of 15.77, and the brighter one just to its left is GSC 60:1162, magnitude 13.8. The comet is moving north-east, or to the right. Its position at the time of the photograph was RA = 3 hr 23 min 13 sec, Declination +4º 34' 31". The comet may brighten as it passes by the Earth on December 16. Width of field = 18.6 arcminutes.

Dateline - 11 December 2018 -   A Geminid meteor disintegrates next to Comet 46/P Wirtanen

The annual Geminid meteor shower is underway as Earth enters a stream of gravelly debris from 'rock comet' 3200 Phaethon. The peak night is expected to occur on December 14-15 with 60+ meteors per hour.  Last night, a photographer in Missouri caught an early Geminid disintegrating next to approaching Comet 46P/Wirtanen - a scene that could be repeated many times in the nights ahead. The video and observing tips are highlighted in today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline - 10 December 2018 -   Voyager 2 enters interstellar space

Today at the American Geophysical Union meeting in Washington, NASA announced that Voyager 2 has exited the sun's magnetic bubble and entered interstellar space. The 70s-era probe is now experiencing a blizzard of galactic cosmic rays as it charts the unexplored space between the stars. See the data and learn more on today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story.   


Dateline - 7 December 2018 -   China's mission to the far side of the Moon

China is going where no one has gone before, to the far side of the Moon. Today, a Long March 3B rocket is scheduled to blast off from the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre, propelling a lander and rover toward craters hidden from Earth that may possibly contain water and other resources. This would be important for future human exploration pf the far side. If the mission succeeds, it will catapult China into the forefront of lunar exploration with a landing that no other nation has yet attempted. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story.


Dateline - 4 December 2018 -   A comet as big as the Full Moon approaches Earth

Hyperactive Comet 46P/Wirtanen is approaching Earth for one of the closest Earth-comet encounters of the Space Age. Observers report that the comet's gaseous green atmosphere now covers a patch of sky as large as the full Moon, and it is growing larger.  Of course, the solid nucleus of the comet is much smaller, only 1.2 km across. Current predictions are that it will reach magnitude 3.9 on December 15, which means that will appear as a large, faint cloud about a degree across in the constellation of Taurus, near the Hyades and Pleiades star clusters. As this date coincides with a First Quarter Moon, the best way to observe this comet will be with binoculars or small telescope taken to a dark site well away from city lights, and observations made around midnight. Comet Wirtanen presents no danger to the Earth. Sky maps and expert observing tips are featured on today's edition of  Spaceweather  and  here .

Comet 46/P Wirtanen on November 30, 2018. This image is a stack of five exposures between 8:13 and 9:05 pm. The comet's movement over the 52 minute period can be seen, the five images of the comet merging into a short streak. It is heading towards the upper left corner of the image, and is brightening as it approaches the Sun, with perihelion occurring on December 12. The images of the stars in the five exposures overlap each other precisely. The length of the streak indicates that the comet is presently moving against the starry background at 1.6º per day. The comet at 9:05 pm was at Right Ascension = 2 hrs 32 min 56 secs, Declination = 20º 27' 20". The upper star in the yellow circle is SAO 167833, magnitude 8.31, the same one circled in the picture below but with higher magnification.  


Dateline - 28 November 2018 -   A hyperactive comet approaches Earth

A small but hyperactive comet named "46P/Wirtanen" is nearing Earth for one of the 10 closest approaches by any comet of the Space Age. Wirtanen's emerald green atmosphere is now larger than the full Moon, and it is an increasingly easy target for binoculars and small telescopes. Currently at magnitude 6, naked-eye viewing could be just around the corner. It will reach its closest to the Sun (perihelion) on December 12, and then head in our direction. It will pass the Earth at a distance of 11.5 million kilometres (30 times as far away as the Moon) on December 16. In the week preceding, it will be at its brightest. On the night of November 29-30, it will be near the sixth magnitude star SAO 167839, which lies near the junction of the constellations Cetus, Eridanus and Fornax. It will be 4.3 degrees north of the zenith at 9:50 pm. The comet will therefore be visible for most of the night. In the coming weeks it will head rapidly north-north-east, passing 4.7 degrees east of the second magnitude star Menkar and crossing into Taurus on December 11. It will pass between the Pleiades and Hyades star clusters on the night of December 19-20, heading towards the star Capella in Auriga, which it will pass on December 24-25. This could be an exceptional flyby. Visit  Spaceweather  and  here  for more information and charts.

Comet 46/P Wirtanen was photographed on November 29, 2018 between 9:45 and 9:47 pm.  The comet's position was Right Ascension = 2 hrs 30 min 11 secs,
Declination = 21º 43' 13". The nearest star to the comet's position, just to its left, is GSC 5862:549, magnitude 14.1. The spiral galaxy near the right margin is NGC 908.


Dateline - 27 November 2018 -   NASA's MARS InSight mission successfully touches down on the red planet

InSight landed on Mars on November 27, 2018 at 5:52:59 am, Australian Eastern Standard Time (Queensland time). The entry, descent, and landing (EDL) phase began when the spacecraft reached the Martian atmosphere, about 128 kilometres above the surface, and ended with the lander safe and sound on the surface of Mars six minutes later. For InSight, this phase included a combination of technologies inherited from past NASA Mars missions such as NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander. This landing system weighed less than the airbags used for the twin rovers or the skycrane used by the Mars Science Laboratory. The lean landing hardware helped InSight place a higher ratio of science instruments to total launch mass on the surface of Mars.

For more information see the  NASA report  or the  ABC News  coverage.

Dateline - 16 November 2018 -   The Leonid meteor shower on this weekend (just before dawn)

Earth is entering a stream of debris from Comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, source of the annual Leonid meteor shower. NASA cameras have already detected a number of Leonid fireballs over the USA with peak rates expected on their November 17 and 18. The weekend display is best seen at dawn alongside a new comet and a conjunction between Venus and the brightest star of Virgo (Spica). Visit  Spaceweather  for the full story.


Dateline - 12 November 2018 -   Bright new Comet C/2018 V1 Machholz-Fujikawa-Iwamoto discovered by amateur astronomers

In modern astronomy, most comets are found by large mountaintop telescopes photographing the skies under computer control. The photographs are scanned automatically to look for any new object that is not on the databases, such as an asteroid or comet. These on-going robotic surveys discover most new comets before they are bright enough for amateur astronomers to catch them. Surprisingly, three amateur astronomers (one in Arizona, two in Japan) have just discovered a bright new comet in the constellation Virgo that somehow escaped the notice of the automated surveys. This morning it was near the magnitude 2.9 star Porrima (Gamma Virginis), and heading east through the background stars. It will be near the magnitude 3.38 star Zeta Virginis on November 18. Named Comet Machholz-Fujikawa-Iwamoto after the three discoverers, it is plunging toward the Sun and could brighten to naked-eye visibility later this month. It will be at its closest approach to Earth on November 27 and closest approach to the Sun on December 4. The best time to observe it from November 13 to November 18 will be from 4 am to the first light of dawn, close to the due east horizon, and a little over half a handspan to the left of Venus. As the days go by and it becomes closer to the Sun, it will become lost in the solar glare. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story.

This is the 12th comet discovered by Don Machholz of Arizona, who is the world's most successful living visual comet hunter. He found his 11th comet in 2010. It took 746 hours searching over eight years to capture the latest one.


Dateline - 3 November 2018 -   Leonids meteor swarm due in two weeks

The Leonids meteor shower is one of the richest swarms of the year. It generally averages about one meteor every three minutes, but every 33 years it is much richer than that, causing what is known as a 'meteor storm' with about 1000 meteors being seen per hour. The last 'storm' occurred in 1998, and the next will be in 2031. The Leonids will encounter the Earth in the pre-dawn hours of November 17 to 19, after the waxing gibbous Moon has set. The meteors appears to radiate from the direction of the constellation Leo the Lion, hence the name. More precisely, they come from the direction of the third magnitude star Adhafera, in the Lion's mane. These meteors are debris from Comet Tempel-Tuttle.

Meteoroids are small rocky or metallic bodies in the Solar System, left over from the creation of the planets. Some are produced by impacts of asteroids with the Moon, Mars or other solid Solar System bodies. Their sizes range from about a metre to a grain of sand. If they are smaller than a sand grain they are called 'micrometeoroids' or 'space dust'. The Earth encounters thousands every day. They enter our atmosphere at a speed averaging 20 kilometres per second or 72000 kilometres per hour. Friction with our atmosphere burns them up immediately at an average  height of 70 to 90 kilometres, producing a streak of light called a 'meteor' if they occur at night. Sometimes a faint trail of smoke persists for a minute or so. The resulting dust and ash floats down to the Earth's surface and settles on the ground. Much of our topsoil contains this interplanetary material. The Earth attracts about 40 tonnes of meteoric material every day. Large meteoroids may not burn completely away and can survive to hit the ground where they can be collected. Once they are on the ground they are called 'meteorites'. Two people were struck by meteorites in the last century - both survived the experience. Meteorites are not rare and most museums have a collection. There are usually small examples for sale on ebay.


Dateline - 1 November 2018 -   Geomagnetic storm predicted this weekend

NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory is monitoring a large hole in the Sun's atmosphere, now directly facing Earth. A stream of solar wind escaping from the opening is expected to reach our planet during the early hours of November 4, possibly sparking minor G1-class geomagnetic storms over the weekend. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and updates.


Dateline - 19 October 2018 -   Orionids meteor shower (meteors from Halley's Comet) has started

Right now, specks of dust from Halley's comet are disintegrating in Earth's atmosphere, kicking off the annual Orionid meteor shower. Forecasters expect the shower to peak this weekend with 20+ meteors per hour appearing to radiate from the constellation Orion. The nearly full Moon could reduce visibility, but it is possible to avoid the glare if you look at the right time. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for sky maps and observing tips.


Dateline - 16 October 2018 -   Coming in December, the year's best comet

Get ready for a very nice comet. In exactly two months, Comet 46P/Wirtanen will sweep past Earth, making one of the ten closest approaches of a comet to our planet since 1960. If forecasters are correct, Comet Wirtanen could become visible to the naked eye for weeks in this coming December. The small but unusually active comet will come closest to Earth just four days after its closest approach to the Sun, and it will be "up" all night long, making this an exceptional flyby. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information.


Dateline - 13 October 2018 -   Draconid meteor outburst

On October 8-9, European sky watchers were amazed when a flurry of faint meteors filled the sky at midnight. It was an outburst of the annual Draconids meteor shower. Turns out, that outburst was just the tip of the iceberg. Computer models show that Earth narrowly missed two streams of comet debris that would have caused significant meteor storms had they struck our planet. Visit  Spaceweather  for the full story.


Dateline - 10 October 2018 -   Aurorae caught making noise

For centuries, people inside the Arctic Circle have reported hearing strange hissing and popping sounds under the Northern Lights. Evidence is mounting that at least some those auroral sounds are real. On October 7, a researcher in southern Finland recorded some during a G1-class geomagnetic storm - the latest in a series of detections by the long-running Auroral Acoustics Project. Visit today's edition  of  Spaceweather  to hear a sample "geomagnetic thunderclap."


Dateline - 28 September 2018 -   The chill of the solar minimum

The sun is entering a deep Solar Minimum, and Earth's upper atmosphere is responding. Data from NASA's TIMED satellite show that the thermosphere (the uppermost layer of air around our planet) is cooling and shrinking, literally decreasing the radius of the atmosphere. If current trends continue, the thermosphere could set a Space Age record for cold in the months ahead. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story.


Dateline - 22 September 2018 -   Japanese robots land on near-Earth asteroid

Yesterday, the Japanese space agency made history by landing a pair of robots on diamond-shaped asteroid Ryugu. The tiny explorers are now hopping across the space rock's rugged surface and sending unprecedented pictures back to Earth. Ryugu is a near-Earth asteroid that can approach our planet closer than the Moon, so exploring it is important. Learn more on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline - 10 September 2018 -   Green comet makes closest approach to Earth

Today, 11 September, Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner ("21P" for short) is making its closest approach to Earth in 72 years - only 58 million kilometres from our planet. The small but active comet is easy to see in small telescopes and binoculars shining like a 7th magnitude star in the constellation Auriga. It is visible low in the north-east in the hour before the first light of dawn appears. For observing tips and charts, visit  Spaceweather . (The P in its name indicates that it is a periodic comet in an elliptical orbit around the Sun, i.e. one that makes regular appearances.)


Dateline - 10 September 2018 -   Geomagnetic storm predicted

NOAA forecasters have issued a watch for G2-class (moderately strong) geomagnetic storms on September 11 when a fast-moving stream of solar wind is expected to hit Earth's magnetic field. During G2-class storms, aurorae can appear in the southern Australian states and New Zealand. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and updates.


Dateline - 25 August 2018 -   A green comet approaches Earth

The beautiful green Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner is approaching Earth for a 58 million kilometre close encounter in early September, when it is expected to approach naked-eye visibility. This small but active comet is the parent of the annual Draconid meteor shower, a display that typically peaks on October 8, less than a month after the comet's 2018 flyby. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information about 21P and where to point your telescope as it approaches.


Dateline - 10 August 2018 -   The Parker Solar Probe - a mission to touch the Sun

The Parker Solar Probe will help scientists learn more about the solar wind, an exotic brew of magnetic forces, plasma and particles. NASA has a ScienceCast Video on this topic.


Dateline - 9 August 2018 -   Solar eclipse this weekend  (not visible from Australia)

The Moon is about to take a bite out of the sun. On Saturday, August 11, there will be a partial solar eclipse visible from locations around the Arctic Circle and across much of Asia. During the 3+ hour event, as much as 73% of the solar disc will be covered. Visit   Spaceweather  for more information about this event.


Dateline - 6 August 2018 -   Perseid meteor shower is underway

Earth is entering a stream of debris from giant comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle, parent of the annual Perseid meteor shower. Although the shower is not expected to peak until next weekend, NASA all-sky cameras are already detecting dozens of Perseid fireballs every night. This early activity may be a good omen for the nights ahead, especially August 11-14 when the Earth is expected to pass through the densest part of the comet's debris zone. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and observing tips.


Dateline - 22 July 2018 -   A large hole in the Sun's atmosphere

A large hole has opened in the sun's atmosphere and it is spewing a stream of solar wind toward Earth. NOAA forecasters estimate a 65% chance of minor geomagnetic storms when the gaseous material arrives on July 24th. Such holes are primary sources of solar activity during solar minimum, both forming and staying open longer when sunspots are absent. Learn more on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline - 13 July 2018 -   A 'green flash' on Mars

Mars is approaching Earth for a 15-year close encounter on July 27. The Red Planet is now so bright, it is experiencing forms of atmospheric optics normally reserved for objects like the Sun and Moon. Yesterday, an astronomer in Sweden watching Mars witnessed a rare green flash. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for a video of the phenomenon and more information about the martian brightening. 


Dateline - 9 July 2018 -   Radiation hazards to airline passengers and crews from cosmic rays

On the heels of a new study showing that flight attendants have an elevated risk of cancer compared to the general population, a team including representatives of Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus recently boarded a plane in Los Angeles and flew to Brisbane carrying an array of cosmic ray sensors. During their 13 hour flight across the South Pacific, the team detected secondary cosmic rays in the passenger compartment almost 40 times stronger than on the ground below. Their "haul" of radiation included a significant number of neutrons captured in portable bubble chambers.  The radiation, which included x-rays and gamma rays, almost doubled over the Coral Sea and the approaches to Brisbane. Read today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story.


Dateline - 4 July 2018 -   Approaching green comet explodes

A comet that could become visible to the naked eye in August has exploded in brightness, suddenly increasing its luminosity 16-fold. Whatever happened on Comet PANSTARRS (C/2017 S3) on July 1 has given it an expanding green atmosphere almost twice the size of the planet Jupiter. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  and later entries for pictures and more information about this approaching comet.

Dateline - 2 July 2018 -   Planet-encircling dust storm on Mars

A martian dust storm that started in late May, silencing NASA's Opportunity rover, has now wrapped itself around the entirety of Mars, radically transforming the appearance of the Red Planet. Amateur astronomers are taking pictures of the storm through backyard telescopes, and even naked-eye observers say they can see changes in the planet's colour. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for more information and animations.


Dateline - 20 June 2018 -   Big sunspot alert

Yesterday, sunspot AR2715 did not exist. Today, it sprawls across more than 60 000 kilometres of solar surface with a primary dark core wider than the Earth. So far, the active region has not produced any big flares, but this could change if its development proceeds apace. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for a video of the sunspot's genesis and information about how it fits into the Solar Minimum. 


Dateline - 13 June 2018 -   Huge dust storm on Mars

Yesterday, NASA lost contact with the Opportunity Mars rover as a ferocious dust storm spreads around the Red Planet. Thick dust has turned day into night at Opportunity's work site in Perseverance Valley, blocking sunlight to the solar powered rover. Currently on the verge of circumnavigating Mars, the storm is so large that amateur astronomers can now see it through backyard telescopes. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for an animation of the spreading storm and more information.


Dateline - 8 June 2018 -   Mars now is brighter than Sirius

Mars is approaching Earth for an almost once-in-a-generation close encounter in late July. This week, the brightness of Mars surpassed that of Sirius, making the Red Planet brighter than any star in the night sky. If you are outside at 9 pm, you can't help noticing Mars as a bright, orange, star-like object low to the east-south-eastern horizon, and the show is about to get much better. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story.


Dateline - 5 June 2018 -   Small asteroid collides with Earth

A small asteroid hit Earth on Saturday, June 2, exploding in the atmosphere over Botswana before it could reach the ground. The Catalina Sky Survey in Arizona had discovered the space rock only hours earlier as it hurtled toward our planet from inside the orbit of the Moon. Sensors used to monitor rogue nuclear explosions detected the asteroid's detonation and estimated its strength to be about the same as 480 tonnes of TNT. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story.


Dateline - 14 May 2018 -   Lost asteroid returns to Earth

Eight years ago, astronomers lost a near-Earth asteroid. They just found it. The space rock, named 2010 WC9, is approaching Earth for a close encounter on Tuesday, May 15. There's no danger of a collision, but the ~100 metre wide asteroid will be near enough for amateur astronomers to photograph. Visit today's edition of Spaceweather  for the full story.


Dateline - 11 May 2018 -   Red airglow over the Atacama Desert

Last night, the normally dark skies of Chile's Atacama Desert lit up with rippling bands of red light. It looked like the aurora borealis, but it was not. A photographer recorded the unusual apparition of red airglow, so bright that it outshined parts of the Milky Way. Visit today's edition of Spaceweather  for photos and an explanation of this phenomenon.


Dateline - 7 May 2018 -   STEVE visits the USA

Over the weekend, a solar wind stream engulfed Earth, sparking stronger-than-expected G2-class geomagnetic storms. At the peak of the storms, STEVE appeared. The strange ribbon-like aurora travelled south and was sighted in multiple US states. Visit today's edition of Spaceweather  to see pictures and learn more about STEVE (see also  Dateline - 11 April 2018  below).


Dateline - 2 May 2018 -   Sunspots vanishing faster than expected

So far in 2018, the Sun has been blank more than half the time. Whole weeks have gone by without a single sunspot. Although forecasters have been expecting sunspots to disappear with the approach of Solar Minimum, it is happening faster than predicted. Visit today's edition of Spaceweather  to see the data and to find out what it means, here on Earth.


Dateline - 28 April 2018 -   Special conjunction of the Moon and Jupiter

On the night of April 30 - May 1, (next Monday night), the Moon and Jupiter will converge in the constellation of Libra for a special conjunction. Jupiter is approaching Earth for a close encounter in early May, making the giant planet a little bigger and brighter than usual. On Monday night, April 30, the Full Moon will glide past the brightening gas giant. It adds up to a display of rare brilliance in the midnight sky. Visit  Spaceweather  for sky maps and more information.


Dateline - 15 April 2018 -   Surprise asteroid flyby

With little warning, on Sunday, April 15, a "Tunguska-class" asteroid about the size of a football field flew through the Earth-Moon system. 2018 GE3 was discovered just the day before as it plunged inward from the asteroid belt. A quick-thinking amateur astronomer in Europe was able to record a video of the asteroid as it flew by. Visit today's edition of Spaceweather  to see the movie and to learn more about this surprise visitor. 


Dateline - 11 April 2018 -   Rare video of STEVE

Last night in parts of Canada, dogs started barking at the midnight sky. The canines were responding to a bright purple ribbon of light - also known as "STEVE" ("Strong Thermal Emission Velocity Enhancement") The apparition, which occurred during a G1-class geomagnetic storm, was so long-lasting that at least one onlooker had time to capture rare video of the phenomenon. Visit today's edition of Spaceweather  to see STEVE in motion.

Dateline - 11 April 2018 -   Geomagnetic storm in progress

A minor G1-class geomagnetic storm is in progress on April 11th as Earth moves through a high speed stream of solar wind. This is causing bright auroras around the poles, with Northern Lights sighted as far south as the Dakotas in the USA.  The gaseous material is flowing from a wide hole in the sun's atmosphere--so wide that the stream could continue to influence our planet for the next two to three days. Visit  Spaceweather  for updates.

Dateline - 8 April 2018 -   Space lightning over Europe

Red sprites (also known as "space lightning") are dancing over thunderstorms in Europe. A dedicated observatory spotted the eerie red forms shooting up toward the Pleiades on April 4, marking an unusually early start to the northern summer season for sprites. Today's edition of Spaceweather  explores the possibility that this development is related to recent increases in galactic cosmic rays.


Dateline -  26 March 2018 -   Chinese Space Station to disintegrate

China's Tiangong-1 space station is about to return to Earth - as a massive fireball. Low solar activity kept Tiangong-1 in orbit longer than officials predicted, but it's finally coming down. The European Space Agency says the 8-tonne craft should re-enter sometime between March 30 and April 2, a window of uncertainty which will narrow in the days ahead. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and ground tracks.


Dateline -  19 March 2018 -   Surprise geomagnetic storm

On March 18, an unexpected crack opened in Earth's magnetic field, sparking a brief but potent G2-class geomagnetic storm. Bright aurorae ringed the Arctic Circle while, in Europe, the light show descended as far south as Germany. With the northern vernal equinox less than a day away, this is the time of year when such cracks tend to form. Today's edition of  Spaceweather explains the phenomenon of magnetic cracks and how you can monitor them online.


Dateline -  15 March 2018 -   Stephen Hawking has left us

World renowned physicist and cosmologist Stephen William Hawking has died peacefully at home in Cambridge at the age of 76. He was the first to unite Einstein's theory of relativity with quantum mechanics, to produce a new theory of cosmology which included black holes and relativistic effects. With the mathematician Roger Penrose, he proposed in 1970 that the universe began as a singularity. If he had been able to support his theories by performing practical observational work, he would have been certain to win a Nobel Prize in Physics. Hawking wrote several popular science books including the best-seller "A Brief History of Time".

At the age of 22, as a student at Cambridge University, he was diagnosed with a rare form of motor-neurone disease and given only a few years to live. The illness progressed slowly and left him wheel-chair bound, and later almost completely paralysed. He was virtually unable to speak and was forced to communicate via a voice synthesiser (using one cheek muscle to operate a mobile computer). Yet he met two US Presidents, flew at zero gravity in a special plane, and fathered three children, Lucy, Robert and Tim, who said: "We are deeply saddened that our beloved father passed away today. He was a great scientist and an extraordinary man whose work and legacy will live on for many years." They praised his "courage and persistence" and said his "brilliance and humour" inspired people across the world.


Dateline -  22 February 2018 -   Earth's magnetic field is oscillating

This morning in Lofoten, Norway, a magnetic observatory picked up unusually pure low-frequency waves rippling around the Arctic Circle. Known as 'pulsations continuous (Pc)', these rare magnetic oscillations can energise particles in our planet's magnetosphere, boosting the brightness of aurorae. Indeed, strong auroras are being seen right now in Scandinavia. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  to learn what caused these Pc waves and to monitor the ongoing display.


Dateline -  20 February 2018 -   The roadster and the star cluster

How far away can you see a cherry red Tesla Roadster? Yesterday, a telescope in Chile spotted Elon Musk's electric car 3.7 million kilometres from Earth as it was passing by star cluster NGC 5694. Using orbital elements published by NASA, amateur astronomers are setting new distance records almost every day as they track the Roadster en route to the orbit of Mars. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for updates and a movie of the Roadster and the star cluster.


Dateline -  19 February 2018 -   Geomagnetic storm in progress

A G1-class geomagnetic storm is underway on February 19 as Earth enters a stream of fast-moving solar wind. G1-class storms are relatively minor and have little effect on satellites or global power grids. However, they can spark bright auroras around the Arctic Circle and confuse migratory animals that navigate using magnetism at high latitudes. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and updates.


Dateline -  14 February 2018 -   Sunspot explodes - hurls CME at Earth

On February 12, the magnetic canopy of sunspot AR2699 exploded, for more than six hours. The slow-motion blast produced a C1-class solar flare and hurled a coronal mass ejection (CME) almost directly toward Earth.  NOAA forecasters say there is a 60% chance of minor G1-class geomagnetic storms with isolated periods of stronger G2 storming when the CME arrives on February 14 or 15. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information about this event and the possible visibility of aurorae.


Dateline -  9 February 2018 -   Amateur astronomers photograph Tesla motor car in space:

"It's the craziest thing I've ever captured in my telescope," says amateur astronomer Raymond Kneip. Last night, he photographed Elon Musk's cherry red Roadster 430 000 kilometres from Earth, heading toward the orbit of Mars. NASA has just released an ephemeris (celestial co-ordinates) for the electric car, allowing astronomers to track and photograph the Tesla as it recedes into deep space. Pictures of the Roadster and instructions for accessing NASA's ephemeris may be found on today's edition of Spaceweather .

The first remarkable Space-X mission in which a rocket with two boosters was flown to the threshold of space can be viewed here .  Both boosters detached and returned to Earth, landing simultaneously in vertical positions, while the main rocket landed safely, also vertical, on a ship at sea. I kid you not.


Dateline -  5 February 2018 -   A solar minimum sunspot:

With Solar Minimum right around the corner, sunspot counts are at an almost ten year low. So it came as a surprise yesterday when a relatively large sunspot emerged near the sun's eastern limb. AR2699 has a primary dark core larger than the Earth with many smaller magnetic condensations trailing behind it, in all stretching more than 75 00 km across the sun's surface. Rare "solar minimum sunspots" are capable of intense explosions just like sunspots during more active phases of the solar cycle. Visit today's edition of Spaceweather for more information and updates.


Dateline -  26 January 2018 -   A long-dead spacecraft wakes up:

In 2005, a NASA spacecraft named IMAGE mysteriously went silent, abruptly ending a successful mission to study Earth's magnetosphere. Thirteen years later, it's back. On January 20, 2018, an amateur astronomer in Canada picked up radio transmissions from IMAGE, alive after all. The satellite may have been chattering away at Earth for years unheard and unnoticed. Now NASA is working to regain contact and possibly revive a key asset for space weather research and nowcasting. Visit today's edition of Spaceweather for the full story.


Dateline -  14 January 2018 -   Geomagnetic storm in progress:

A G1-class geomagnetic storm is underway on January 14 as Earth enters a stream of fast-moving solar wind. G1-class storms are relatively minor and have little effect on satellites or global power grids. However, they can confuse migratory animals that navigate using magnetism at high latitudes and, moreover, may spark bright aurorae around the Arctic Circle. Visit  Spaceweather for more information and updates.


Dateline -  11 January 2018 -   Blue comet PanSTARRS:

Beyond the orbit of Mars, an unusual blue comet is approaching the Sun. Every time astronomers look at Comet PanSTARRS (C/2016 R2), it has a different appearance. Daily images show gaseous jets waving wildly around the comet's core and dusty clouds billowing down the comet's tail. This hyperactivity comes despite the fact that the comet is located in a region of space where deep cold and feeble sunlight usually discourage such volatility. What's happening? The comet's blue colour is a crucial clue. Find the answer on today's edition of Spaceweather .


Dateline -  30 December 2017 -   Views of the Earth from NASA spacecraft:

As we look back at 2017, see how cameras on NASA spacecraft have looked back at our home planet, treating us to intriguing and inspiring perspectives from various places in space.  Watch the ScienceCast Video


Dateline -  17 December 2017 -   Geomagnetic storm in progress:

A G1-class geomagnetic storm is underway on December 17 as Earth moves into a stream of solar wind. The gaseous material is flowing faster than 600 km/s from a hole in the Sun's atmosphere. G1-class storms are relatively minor and have little effect on power grids and satellites. However, they can confuse migratory animals that navigate using magnetism at high latitudes and, moreover, may spark bright aurorae around the Arctic Circle. Tonight's nearly new Moon will provide a dark backdrop for Northern Lights. Visit  Spaceweather for more information and updates.


Dateline -  11 December 2017 -   A 'rock comet' is approaching Earth this weekend:

You've heard of comets. But have you ever heard of a rock comet? They exist, and a big one is approaching Earth this week. 3200 Phaethon will fly past our planet on Sunday, December 17, only 10 million kilometres away. Measuring some 5 km in diameter, it is large enough for amateur astronomers to photograph through backyard telescopes. Moreover, this strange object is the parent of the annual Geminid meteor shower, which is also coming this week. Sky watchers can see dozens of Geminids per hour on December 14 and 15 as gravelly bits of the rock comet disintegrate in Earth's upper atmosphere. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  to find out how to observe the Geminids and their progenitor in the nights ahead.


Dateline -  20 November 2017 -   Interstellar asteroid "like nothing ever seen":

Last month, telescopes around the world rushed to observe an asteroid from interstellar space as it raced through our Solar System. Some of the data from those observations was published in today's edition of Nature, and they reveal an object like no one has ever seen before. The deep-space asteroid, named 'Oumuamua', is tinged dark red, made of dense rock or metal, and shaped roughly like a giant cigar at least 400 metres long. Get the full story on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  17 November 2017 -   Meteor explodes over the Arctic

On the evening of November 16, a meteoroid ripped through the atmosphere over the Arctic Circle and exploded. The resulting fireball wiped out the aurora borealis, cast shadows, and turned the night sky blue.  Visit  Spaceweather  to see a movie of the explosion, captured accidentally by an automated aurora skycam in northern Finland.


Dateline -  17 November 2017 -   Incoming solar wind

Today, a hole in the Sun's atmosphere is facing Earth. The emerging stream of solar wind could reach our planet as early as November 19, with G1-class geomagnetic storms possible on November 20.  Visit  Spaceweather  for more.


Dateline -  12 November 2017 -   Venus - Jupiter conjunction

Set your alarm for dawn. On Tuesday morning, November 14, Venus and Jupiter will converge in the pre-dawn sky only 1/3rd of a degree apart. Look low and to the east about 30 minutes before sunrise. If you miss them on Tuesday, try again on Wednesday, November 15. The conjunction will be breaking up, but still a beautiful sight. Visit  Spaceweather  for sky maps and pictures.


Dateline -  23 October 2017 -   Geomagnetic storms predicted  (G2 class)

A large hole has opened in the Sun's atmosphere, and it is discharging a stream of solar wind toward Earth. Estimated time of arrival: October 25. First contact with the gaseous material is expected to produce minor G1-class geomagnetic storms, intensifying to moderately strong G2-class storms on October 26 as the Earth moves deeper into the stream. Arctic sky watchers can expect to witness bright aurorae. The lights could descend to lower latitudes as well, with sightings in northern-tier US states along a line from Maine to Washington. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and updates.


Dateline -  20 October 2017 -   Meteors from Halley's Comet

Earth is entering a stream of debris from Halley's Comet, source of the annual Orionid meteor shower. Last night, NASA's network of all-sky meteor cameras detected 23 Orionid fireballs over the USA  - a result of comet dust hitting the atmosphere at speeds exceeding 65 km/s (145,000 mph). Forecasters expect the shower to peak on October 21-23 with as many as 25 meteors per hour.  Visit  Spaceweather  for observing tips and sky maps.


Dateline -  10 October 2017 -   Asteroid to buzz Earth this week

Four years ago, a house-sized asteroid tore through the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk, Russia, and exploded.  Shock waves shattered windows and knocked down onlookers as fragments of the disintegrating space rock peppered the Ural countryside. This week an asteroid about the same size is approaching Earth. It will not hit our planet, but it's coming very close. On October 12, 2017, the speeding space rock, named '2012 TC4', will skim just above the zone of Earth's geosynchronous communications satellites and briefly become a target for amateur telescopes. Learn more about the flyby on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  8 October 2017 -   Damage caused by Hurricane Maria threatens the Arecibo Radio Telescope with closure

Until eclipsed by the Chinese FAST radio telescope last year, the 305 metre (1000 feet) Arecibo Radio Telescope on the island of Puerto Rico was the largest dish in the world, although at over 50 years old it was showing its age. Damage caused to the radio telescope by the hurricane, while not catastrophic, will take several million dollars to repair. The main problem is that a large portion of a 29-metre long antenna suspended at the focal point above the dish was torn loose and fell into the dish. Destruction of much infrastructure in Puerto Rico, including observatory buildings and residences, is a major problem. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has had its funding slashed, and needs to divest itself of as many as ten observatories so that it can channel its reduced budget towards newer facilities. Concern has been expressed that the NSF may decide to write off the facility at Arecibo.   News report .


Dateline -  4 October 2017 -   Major aurora event on Mars

Last month, a human astronaut standing on the surface of Mars could have seen something amazing. The night sky of the Red Planet turned green in a global display of Northern Lights. Unfortunately, the same astronaut would have been irradiated by high energy particles from the sun. For three days in mid-September a solar storm enveloped Mars, crossing thresholds of ground-level radiation and auroras that orbiters and rovers had never seen before. Such global events on Mars may be more common than previously thought - a topic explored on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  30 September 2017 -   New Horizons' discoveries keep coming

The probe New Horizons, which so successfully imaged Pluto in a flyby in July 2015, is on its way to new discoveries deep in the Kuiper Belt – a region inhabited by ancient remnants from the dawn of the solar system.     Watch NASA's ScienceCast Video  


Dateline -  28 September 2017 -   Strong geomagnetic storm

Knowing that a solar wind stream was heading for Earth, forecasters predicted a geomagnetic storm last night. However, they didn't predict it would be so strong, a G3-class event. During the peak of this surprising space storm, Northern Lights spilled over the Canadian border into more than half a dozen US states. Visit  Spaceweather  for pictures of the display and updates as the solar wind continues to blow.


Dateline -  21 September 2017 -   Spacecraft buzzes Earth en route to asteroid

NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft was launched on September 8, 2016 on its way to Bennu, a 510-metre diameter asteroid that could threaten our planet in the next century. The spacecraft was placed in an orbit around the Sun, and after a year is back in our vicinity. It is going to fly past Earth on September 22 only 17 202 kilometres away. The daring manoeuvre, called an 'Earth gravity assist', will slingshot the probe towards Bennu. OSIRIS-REx is going to take a closer look at this potentially hazardous space rock and, if all goes as planned, return samples of it to Earth. At closest approach, the spacecraft could become bright enough for advanced amateur astronomers to photograph using backyard telescopes. OSIRIS-REx will pass over Rockhampton heading south-west between 2 and 3 am on September 23. It will descend over Birdsville and Adelaide, and as it passes over the Southern Ocean it will be closer than our geosynchronous weather and communications satellites. It will head over Antarctica and ascend as it turns north up the coast of Chile, turning west to pass over the central Pacific, China and the northern Sahara before going back into space at a higher speed than it had when it arrived.

OSIRIS-REx will reach Bennu in August 2018 and will begin its survey of the asteroid in October of that year. A site for the collection of samples will be selected, and in July 2020 OSIRIS-REx will move into a position to gently touch the surface of Bennu with a robotic arm and sampler head called 'TAGSAM' (Touch-and-go Sample Acquisition Mechanism). The TAGSAM will approach the surface of Bennu at a speed of 10 centimetres per second. Contacting the surface of Bennu for a total of five seconds, the TAGSAM will release a burst of nitrogen gas, causing loose rocks and surface material to be stirred up and directed into a collector in the sampler head. It is hoped that at least 60 grams and possibly up to 2 kilograms of sample will be obtained. If needed, the spacecraft is capable of making up to three sampling attempts. After measuring the mass of the sample, the TAGSAM head will then be stowed in the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for the journey home.

The window for departing Bennu opens in March 2021. At that time OSIRIS-REx will fire its main engines and leave Bennu with a speed of 1152 kph. This burn will place OSIRIS-REx on a trajectory that intersects the orbit of the Earth in September 2023. Four hours before reaching Earth's atmosphere, OSIRIS-REx will jettison the Sample Return Capsule (SRC), placing it on a trajectory to land on Earth. The spacecraft will then perform a deflection manoeuvre of 63 kph that places the spacecraft in a stable orbit around the Sun. The SRC will hit the top of our atmosphere with a speed of 44 658 kph. The heat shield will absorb over 99% of the initial kinetic energy. After entry the SRC will free fall until it reaches an altitude of 33.5 kilometres, when the drogue parachute will deploy. At an altitude of 3000 metres the main parachute will be released, bringing the capsule in for a soft landing in the Utah desert on September 24, 2023, concluding a seven year journey to Bennu and back.

Observing tips and more information are contained in today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  21 September 2017 -   Hubble's contentious Constant

There are two leading ways to measure the universe's rate of expansion, and for fifteen years, they more or less agreed with one another. Not anymore, and that’s a big deal.

            Watch the NASA ScienceCast Video                NASA Science Website            All NASA ScienceCast Videos


Dateline -  14 September 2017 -   Solar wind produces geomagnetic storm

Earth is entering a stream of high-speed solar wind flowing from a hole in the sun's atmosphere. First contact with the stream on September 14 produced a moderately strong (G2-class) geomagnetic storm, ongoing at the time of this alert. If the storm continues, high-latitude sky watchers could see aurorae after local nightfall on September 14/15.  Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for more information and updates. 


Dateline -  12 September 2017 -   Solar flare causes ground level radiation event

Sunday's powerful X8-class solar flare from departing sunspot AR2673 accelerated a swarm of protons toward Earth, producing a strong solar radiation storm and a 'ground level event' (GLE). High-energy particles normally held at bay by Earth's atmosphere and magnetic field penetrated all the way to the ground on September 10. A leading analyst of GLEs says that radiation dose rates onboard commercial jets flying at high latitudes may have briefly doubled during the episode. Learn more about GLEs and what caused this solar flare to be so effective on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  10 September 2017 -   Another X-class solar flare

Departing sunspot AR2673 erupted again on September 10 (2:06 am AEST September 11), producing a major X8-class solar flare. A moderately strong solar radiation storm is underway as protons accelerated by the blast swarm around our planet. Shortwave radio blackouts over the Americas and around Earth's poles have also been observed in the aftermath of the explosion. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for updates and more information.


Dateline -  8 September 2017 -   Severe geomagnetic storm

The debris from this week's monster X9-class solar flare hit Earth's magnetic field last night. The result: Northern Lights in the USA as far south as Arkansas. A severe (G4-class) geomagnetic storm yesterday sparked aurorae so bright that in parts of Scandinavia, traffic stopped as drivers pulled over to watch the display. More storms are in the offing tonight and tomorrow as Earth moves through the wake of this potent CME.  Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for updates and aurora photos.


Dateline -  7 September 2017 -   Geomagnetic storm warning

A CME has just hit Earth's magnetic field (September 8 at  ~9 am AEST). This is the debris from Thursday's decade-class X9 solar flare. It arrived earlier than expected, confirming that the solar storm cloud is both fast and potent. The CME appears to contain strong south-pointing magnetic fields that typically do a good job of igniting geomagnetic storms. High-latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras in bright moonlight.  Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for updates and more information about this developing event.


Dateline -  6 September 2017 -   X-Class solar flare

On September 6, 2017, at 22:02 AEST, active sunspot AR2673 unleashed an X9.3-class solar flare - the strongest solar flare in more than a decade. The explosion also hurled a CME into space, and possibly toward Earth. Analysis of the event is still underway.  Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for updates and more information about the historical context of today's remarkable flare.


Dateline -  3 September 2017 -   Sunspot genesis

Two big sunspot groups are now facing Earth. Behemoth AR2674 has been growing for days, while newcomer AR2673 has suddenly quadrupled in size, with multiple dark cores breaching the surface of the sun in just the past 24 hours. The rapid development of these regions could herald Earth-directed flares in the days ahead. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for movies of sunspot genesis in action.


Dateline -  27 August 2017 -   Astronomers unveil the most detailed map of the Milky Way to date

The map, based on observations from the European Space Agency’s Gaia probe, still only represents about 1% of the Milky Way’s stars, but is already 20 times more complete than any previous observations of the night sky. It lists the positions of more than one billion Milky Way stars with unprecedented precision.  Click  here  for more.     (Contributed by Tim.)


Dateline -  25 August 2017 -   Solar eclipse in the stratosphere

You've seen pictures of the Great American Solar Eclipse from the ground, and maybe even from space. But what about from the stratosphere? On August 21, just as the Moon was about to pass in front of the sun, the students of Earth to Sky Calculus released a network of 11 spaceweather balloons from five states in the path of totality. More than 20 cameras were waiting in the stratosphere when the Moon's shadow arrived, and they captured some truly unique images. First-look photos are highlighted here .


Dateline -  17 August 2017 -   Cassini's Grand Finale

The spacecraft Cassini is in the process of executing 22 daring ‘Grand Finale’ dives in the 2000-kilometre gap between Saturn and its innermost ring, concluding with an epic final plunge into the gas giant’s upper atmosphere.   Watch the ScienceCast Video


Dateline -  11 August 2017 -   Perseid fireballs

The Perseid meteor shower, which peaks this weekend (August 12-13), produces more fireballs than any other known annual meteor shower. (Fireballs are meteors brighter than Jupiter or Venus.) This characteristic of the Perseids is important because in 2017 the shower peaks under the light of a bright gibbous Moon. Perseid fireballs should be visible in spite of lunar interference, producing a pleasing display for anyone outdoors before sunrise on Saturday and Sunday. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for observing tips.


Dateline -  28 July 2017 -   Noctilucent clouds from space

NASA's AIM spacecraft is back in business. Following a months-long interruption in normal operations, the polar-orbiting satellite is beaming back new images of noctilucent clouds at the edge of space. Data arriving now show a magnificent ring of electric-blue surrounding Earth's north pole, confirming recent sightings from the surface of our planet. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  to learn more about these strange clouds and the status of AIM.


Dateline -  26 July 2017 -   Space lightning over Hawaii

This week, automated cameras atop a dormant volcano in Hawaii captured rare footage of Gigantic Jets leaping up from a powerful thunderstorm. The strange-looking bolts reached toward the edge of space, delivering a surge of electricity to the top of Earth's atmosphere. These unusual forms of 'space lightning' could become more common in the years ahead as declining solar activity allows more ionising cosmic rays to penetrate Earth's atmosphere.  Learn more on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  23 July 2017 -   Massive explosion on the far side of the Sun

On July 23, NASA and European spacecraft observed a massive explosion on the far side of the Sun. A spectacular CME tore through the Sun's atmosphere and it now appears to be en route to Mars. Earth will not feel the effects of the blast because of its location on the opposite side of the sun. However, the source of the eruption, old sunspot AR2665, will turn back toward our planet in early August, possibly bringing a new round of geomagnetic storms and aurorae.  Read all about it on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  21 July 2017 -   CME sweeps aside cosmic rays

On July 16, a CME hit Earth's magnetic field, sparking two days of geomagnetic storms and beautiful aurorae. The solar storm cloud also swept aside some of the cosmic rays currently surrounding our planet. A sudden decrease in deep space radiation was detected by a global network of neutron monitors as well as a space weather balloon in the stratosphere over California. Almost a week later, cosmic rays are finally returning to normal. Learn more about this event on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  16 July 2017 -   CME strike sparks geomagnetic storms

Geomagnetic storms began on July 16 following a CME strike at 3:45 pm AEST. Aurorae have been sighted in New Zealand and Tasmania as well as US states such as Washington and Wyoming. G1-class storms happening now could intensity to G2-class in the hours ahead as Earth moves into the CME's magnetized wake. Visit  Spaceweather  for images and updates.

Dateline -  14 July 2017 -   Strong solar flare and coronal mass ejection

After days of suspenseful quiet, huge sunspot AR2665 finally erupted on July 14 (0209 UT), producing a powerful M2-class solar flare. The explosion was underway for more than two hours and hurled a bright coronal mass ejection (CME) toward Earth. Geomagnetic storms and high-latitude aurorae are likely when the CME arrives this weekend. Visit  Spaceweather  for images and updates.


Dateline -  9 July 2017 -   Solar activity intensifies

Sunspot AR2665, which emerged just as few days ago, has mushroomed into a behemoth nearly as wide as the planet Jupiter. On July 9 the fast-growing sunspot produced an M-class solar flare and a short-lived shortwave radio blackout over east Asia and Australia. Stronger flares and Earth-directed CMEs may be in the offing as AR2665 turns toward our planet in the days ahead. Visit  Spaceweather  for images, movies and updates.


Dateline -  4 July 2017 -   Noctilucent Clouds over Europe

Nightfall is supposed to bring darkness. This week in parts of Europe, nightfall has brought something different: an electric-blue glow caused by clouds of water-frosted meteor smoke rippling over the continent. These summertime 'noctilucent clouds' (NLCs) have been much brighter than usual and even seem to be causing strange radio echoes north of the Arctic Circle. The sudden intensification of NLCs could herald more widespread sightings in Europe and North America in the nights ahead. Visit  Spaceweather  for observing tips and more information.


Dateline -  15 May 2017 -   Geomagnetic storm watch

NOAA forecasters say there is a 40% chance of minor G1-class geomagnetic storms on May 16-18 as Earth enters a stream of solar wind flowing from a hole in the sun's atmosphere. The storm could intensify to G2-class (moderately strong) on May 18 when an incoming CME is expected to deliver a glancing blow to Earth's magnetic field. High-latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras, especially in the southern hemisphere where deepening autumn darkness favours visibility. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and updates.


Dateline -  2 May 2017 -   Meteors from Halley's Comet

A radar in Canada has detected radio echoes coming from the constellation Aquarius. This is a sign that the annual eta Aquarid meteor shower is underway. In the days ahead our planet will cross a network of debris streams from Halley's Comet, producing a drizzle of eta Aquarids numbering 10 to 30 meteors per hour in the northern hemisphere and perhaps twice that number in the southern hemisphere. Usually, the eta Aquarid shower peaks around May 6. This year, there might be an additional enhancement on May 4 and 5.  Check today's edition of  Spaceweather  for more information and observing tips.


Dateline -  23 April 2017 -   Geomagnetic storms continue

Following on the heels of Saturday's unexpected CME impact, our planet is now moving into a stream of high speed (700 km/s) solar wind. This is re-energizing geomagnetic activity around Earth's poles. NOAA forecasters say there is an 80% chance of geomagnetic storms on April 24 subsiding to 'only' 60% to 65% on April 25 and 26. High-latitude sky watchers should remain alert for auroras in the nights ahead. In the USA, Northern Lights might be seen and photographed in northern-tier states from Washington to Maine. Southern Lights are also being reported by observers in high-latitude regions of New Zealand. Visit  Spaceweather  for photos and updates.


Dateline -  22 April 2017 -   Earth Day aurora storm

Last night, Northern Lights descended into the United States as far south as Michigan, Minnesota, and Washington, kicking off an unexpected display of bright auroras for Earth Day. What happened?  A CME that was supposed to miss Earth apparently hit instead, surprising forecasters. Geomagnetic storms are still underway as April 22nd unfolds; high-latitude sky watchers should remain alert for midnight auroras on April 22-23. Visit  Spaceweather  for updates.


Dateline -  22 April 2017 -   Meteor Shower tonight

The aurorae tonight may be spiced by an occasional flash of light.  Earth is entering a stream of debris from Comet Thatcher, source of the annual Lyrid meteor shower. Dark sky observers could see 10 to 20 shooting stars per hour shooting out of the constellation Lyra.  Sky maps and observing tips are at  Spaceweather.


Dateline -  19 April 2017 -   Old Sunspot returns, explodes

Old sunspot AR2644 has returned following a two-week trip around the back side of the sun, and it is still active. During the late hours of April 18, the sunspot's magnetic canopy exploded, producing a C5-class solar flare and hurling a spectacularly bright coronal mass ejection (CME) into space. The massive cloud of hot plasma will almost certainly miss Earth, but future explosions could be geoeffective as the sunspot turns toward our planet. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and updates.


Dateline -  19 April 2017 -   Chance of magnetic storms

NOAA forecasters estimate a 50% chance of polar geomagnetic storms on April 20 when a high-speed stream of solar wind is due to reach our planet. This could spark bright Northern Lights in the waxing spring twilight around the Arctic Circle.  Monitor the  Aurora Gallery  on  Spaceweather  for sightings


Dateline -  2 April 2017 -  The Sun wakes up

Suddenly, solar flare activity is high. Following months of quiet with negligible flares, new sunspot AR2644 unleashed a series of M-class explosions on April 1 and 2. Each blast produced a shortwave radio blackout over a different part of our planet. The powerful explosions also sent beams of radio energy toward Earth, causing roars of static to issue from the loudspeakers of some shortwave receivers. Listen to a sample audio file on today's edition of  Spaceweather,  and stay tuned for more flares on April 4 as the sunspot shows little sign of quieting


Dateline -  1 April 2017 -  Huge sunspot faces Earth

2017 has been a year of few sunspots. That makes AR2645 even more remarkable. In recent days, the young sunspot has grown rapidly into a behemoth more than 150 000 kilometres wide with a magnetic field that harbours energy for M-class (moderately strong) solar flares. Because it is directly facing Earth, any eruptions this weekend could partially ionise the top of our planet's atmosphere and alter the normal propagation of radio transmissions around the globe.  Visit  Spaceweather  to view a movie of the growing sunspot


Dateline -  30 March 2017 -  Comet flyby

Green comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak is flying over Earth's North Pole this week where sky watchers can find it not far from the bowl of the Big Dipper. At closest approach on April 1 it will be just 21 million kilometres from Earth - an easy target for backyard telescopes and almost visible to the naked eye. It is currently too far north to be seen from south-east Queensland. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and observing tips.


Dateline -  27 March 2017 -  Geomagnetic storm underway

As predicted, a stream of solar wind enveloped Earth's magnetic field on March 27. First contact produced a moderately-strong G2-class geomagnetic storm, with bright aurorae around both poles and electrical ground currents detected in the Arctic. More storming is likely during the next 48 hours as Earth moves deeper into the stream and the solar wind pressure intensifies. Visit Spaceweather  for current conditions and updates


Dateline -  21 March 2017 -  Solar wind arrives early

Arriving a day earlier than expected, a stream of fast-moving solar wind is buffeting Earth's magnetic field today. The broad stream is expected to influence our planet for the next three days with a 60% chance of polar geomagnetic storms between now and March 23. Arctic sky watchers should be alert for aurorae in the waxing Spring twilight. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and updates. information and u

Dateline -  19 March 2017 -  Sunspot counts hit a 7-year low

The face of the Sun has been blank (no sunspots) for 13 consecutive days. The last time this happened was in April of 2010, near the end of an historically deep Solar Minimum.  The current stretch of blank Suns heralds a new Solar Minimum expected to arrive in 2019-2020.  What does this mean for us? Answers may be found on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  19 March 2017 -  Venus approaches inferior conjunction

This week, Venus will pass almost directly between Earth and the Sun - an event astronomers call 'inferior solar conjunction'.  As it turns its night side to Earth, the planetary disc of Venus is transforming into an exquisitely slender crescent easily seen through small telescopes or binoculars.  Visit  Spaceweather  for photos and observing tips.


Dateline -  4 March 2017 -  "Aurora Sprites" sighted over New Zealand

For the past few days, Earth has been moving through a stream of solar wind gusting with speeds of 700+ km/sec.  Last night in New Zealand, the stream produced an unusual display of "aurora sprites" above the Otago Peninsula.  Visit  Spaceweather  to see the apparition and to learn what probably caused it.


Dateline -  1 March 2017 -  Solar wind, geomagnetic storm

A G1-class polar geomagnetic storm is in progress on March 1 as Earth enters a fast-moving stream of solar wind.  This is sparking bright auroras around the Arctic Circle. The solar wind is flowing from a large canyon-shaped hole in the sun's atmosphere and is expected to influence Earth for the next two days. Visit  Spaceweather  for more information and updates.


Dateline -  27 February 2017 -  Solar wind, incoming

A canyon-shaped hole in the Sun's atmosphere is spewing a stream of solar wind toward Earth. Polar geomagnetic storms could begin as early as February 28 when the leading edge of the stream reaches our planet. NOAA forecasters estimate a 60% chance of G1-class storms on March 1 when Earth is fully enveloped by the fast-moving solar wind. More information is at  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  19 February 2017 -  A gash in the Sun's atmosphere

An unusually wide and sinuous hole has opened in the Sun's atmosphere, and it is stretching like a gash across the Sun's southern hemisphere. A roughly fan-shaped stream of solar wind flowing from the hole is gently buffeting Earth's magnetic field, and it could keep polar magnetic fields in an unsettled state for the rest of February. Long range forecasts suggest the month could end with a moderately strong (G2-class) geomagnetic storm. This is all good news for Arctic sky watchers, who can expect regular episodes of Northern Lights in the nights ahead. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for more information and sightings.


Dateline -  6 February 2017 -  Green comet approaches Earth

This week, a small green comet named 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova (45P for short) is approaching Earth for one of the closest comet flybys of the Space Age. On the nights around February 11, Comet 45P will be an easy target for binoculars and small telescopes, revealing itself in eyepieces as an emerald coloured fuzzball. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  for sky maps and to find out what makes this little comet so green.


Dateline -  25 January 2017 -  Sunspot surprise

Barely visible only 24 hours ago, a new sunspot group big enough to swallow Earth is bubbling up through the solar surface. So far the active region poses no threat for strong solar flares, but this could change if its rapid growth continues. Visit today's edition of  Spaceweather  to view a movie of sunspot genesis, and to learn how this development fits in with the recent 'crash' of the sunspot cycle.


Dateline -  20 January 2017 -  Radiation Clouds at aviation altitudes

A new study published in the peer-reviewed journal Space Weather reports the discovery of radiation 'clouds' at aviation altitudes. When aeroplanes fly through these clouds, dose rates of cosmic radiation normally absorbed by air travellers can double or more.  Get the full story on today's edition of  Spaceweather .


Dateline -  12 January 2017 -  Sunspots vanish

So far this year, the sun has been blank more than 90% of the time. Only one very tiny sunspot observed for a few hours on January 3 interrupted a string of spotless days from New Year's through to January 11. To find a similar sequence of blank suns, we have to go back to May of 2010, almost seven years ago. What does this mean? Read today's edition of  Spaceweather  for the full story.




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